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Gender Equality in EU Countries

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Gender Equality in EU Countries


Gender pay gap in OECD countries


On average across OECD countries, women earn 11.6% less than men. The gender pay gap has decreased over the last two decades but is still present. Following International Women’s Day on 8 March, learn more about recent OECD work on gender equality.

Chart comparing the gender pay gap in 15 OECD countries
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Gender equality and economic growth

Past progress and future potential


Despite women's rising labour market participation, persistent gender gaps in OECD labour markets limit their full economic potential. This paper examines how the decline of gender gaps has contributed to past economic growth and projects the potential for future growth that closing these gaps could have.

Graphic of a woman walking towards a gap in the road being bridged
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Promoting gender balance in the workforce

Webinar replay


Advancing gender equality in the workforce requires a combination of interventions targeting employers, families and the society more broadly. This webinar focused on key types of measures that are vital to support a more gender-equal labour market, encompassing parental leave, childcare, flexible work, pay transparency as well as non-discrimination legislation.

Graphic of a man and a woman standing on a see-saw
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Real wages regaining some lost ground

The OECD wage bulletin


After a decline in the past two years, average annual real wages are now growing in several countries but in Q3 2023 remained below 2019 levels in most. On the other hand, real minimum wages are above their 2019 level in virtually all OECD countries, with an average increase of 14% across OECD countries (Dec 2019-Jan 2024). Learn how wages are adjusting in the cost-of-living crisis with OECD's new wage bulletin.

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Using artificial intelligence in the workplace

Opportunities, risks and policy responses


Artificial intelligence (AI) can bring significant benefits to the workplace. In the OECD AI surveys of employers and workers, four in five workers say that AI improved their performance at work and three in five say that it increased their enjoyment of work. But the benefits of AI depend on addressing the associated risks. To support the adoption of trustworthy AI in the workplace, this policy paper identifies the main risks that need to be addressed when using AI in the workplace. It identifies the main policy gaps and offers possible policy avenues specific to labour markets.

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Strengthening health systems

A practical handbook for resilience testing


The COVID-19 pandemic underscored the critical need for health systems to be resilient against major disruptions. Despite the significant impact that crises such as pandemics, climate change effects, geopolitical conflicts, financial collapses or digital failures can have on economies and societies, policy makers in the health sector lack tools to test how their health systems would cope with extreme stress. This handbook contains the strategies and insights needed to assess vulnerabilities, develop robust responses and safeguard population health. 

Cover image of coloured link-chain
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Return, reintegration and re-migration

Understanding return dynamics and the role of family and community


Return migration has emerged as a critical policy concern for both destination and origin countries. While policy attention in destination countries has been focused on assisted voluntary return and reintegration (AVRR) programs, particularly for migrants with expulsion orders, these efforts represent only a fraction of broader return movements. This report analyses the scope and characteristics of different categories of return migration.  

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Impact evaluation of Ireland’s active labour market policies


This report analyses the labour market support that jobseekers in Ireland receive and evaluates two large public works programmes, namely the Community Employment and Tús employment programmes. Building on the results of the analyses, the report makes recommendations on how Ireland can further adapt its active labour market policies to better support its current and future jobseekers.

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